This study examines bicycle- and pedestrian-related investments authorized by federal transportation legislation in 3,140 counties in the United States by region, population size and urbanization, social and economic characteristics, and indicators of travel-related walking and bicycling.
- From 1992 to 2004, states and counties implemented 10,012 bicycle- and pedestrian-related projects representing $3.17 billion in federal expenditures.
- Disparities in implementation and system-building outcomes were identified according to population size and location.
- Counties characterized by persistent poverty and low educational status were less likely to implement projects.
- Improved data tracking, more explicit linkages between transportation projects and public health, and improved planning assistance to underserved communities are the key policy recommendations for improving public health outcomes drawn from this research.
Cradock, Angie L., Troped, Philip J., Fields, Billy, Melly, Steven J., Simms, Shannon V., Gimmler, Franz and Fowler, Marianne. “Factors Associated with Federal Transportation Funding for Local Pedestrian and Bicycle Programming and Facilities.” Journal of Public Health Policy. 30 (2009): S38-S72.