This review assesses existing research on the effects of various interventions on levels of bicycling including infrastructure, integration with public transport, education and marketing program, bicycle access programs and legal issues.
- A review of 139 studies shows positive associations between specific interventions and levels of bicycling.
- A secondary review of 14 case studies of cities adopting multiple interventions show that almost all cities adopting comprehensive packages of interventions experienced large increases in the number of bicycle trips and share of people bicycling.
- Substantial increases in bicycling require an integrated package of many different, complementary interventions, including infrastructure provision and pro-bicycle programs, supportive land use planning, and restrictions on car use.
Pucher, John, Dill, Jennifer, and Handy, Susan. “Infrastructure programs and policies to increase bicycling: An international review.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 50 (2010): S106-S125.